Babu Ali, manager of Grameen Bank China sub branch, came to our school to give an academic lecture.
[发布时间:2019-11-23 17:49:09] [访问量:]

On the afternoon of November 19, in conference room y119, Mr. Babu Ali, manager of Grameen China's founding sub branch, and his team were invited to the school of humanities to give a special academic lecture entitled "the development and the model of Grameen Bank". This lecture was host by Vice President Jiang Guohe. Yin Pingjun, the leader of social work master group, Wang Qing, social work practice supervisor, and all students of sociology department attended the lecture.

At the beginning of the lecture, Vice President Jiang Guohe introduced the history of Grameen Bank, the life course of Mr. Babu Ali and Ali’s experience in Grameen Bank. And he extended a warm welcome to Mr. Babu Ali and Ms. Li Jing (secretary of the board of directors of Grameen China, coordinator of the Lankao project, Mr. Ali's accompanying translator).

The Rural Bank of Bangladesh originated in Bangladesh. In 1974, Muhammad Yunus established microfinance in Bangladesh, and Grameen Bank, a rural bank of Bangladesh, in 1983. The Rural Bank of Bangladesh model is a form of organization established by social pressure and joint responsibility. It is the largest, most efficient and most successful microfinance financial institution in the world. It is imitated or used for reference by most developing countries internationally. In October 2006, Yunus won the Nobel Peace Prize for his successful establishment of Bangladesh Rural Bank. As a mature financial model for poverty alleviation, it mainly aims at the poorest farmers, and it takes women in poor families as its main target customers. The key of the model is to provide them with small short-term loans, repay them on a regular basis, and amortize the whole loan. At the same time, the loan does not need mortgage and guarantor. Replace guarantee with five person group joint guarantee, supervise each other and form internal restraint mechanism. And collect group funds and compulsory savings as risk funds according to a certain proportion of loans. Implement the group meeting and central meeting system within the group, check the implementation of the project and the use of funds, deal with the procedures of loan, repayment and deposit. At the same time, it also exchanges wealth information, disseminates scientific and technological knowledge, and improves the operation and development ability of the lender. It provides small guaranteed loans (i.e. micro loans) to poor rural women to support their lives as non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The system is based on the idea that poor people have undeveloped technology. Banks also receive deposits and other services, as well as development oriented operations, including textiles, telecommunications and energy companies. In 1983, Grameen was recognized by the government as a bank.

At the beginning of the lecture, Mr. Ali broadcast a video about the origin of Grameen Bank and a promotional film about Grameen China. It mainly introduced the original intention of founding Grameen Bank by Professor Mohammed Yunus, founder of the bank, economist of Bangladesh and winner of Nobel Peace Prize in 2006. Grameen means rural bank in Bengali, the bank mainly faces the rural poor people, especially the poor women. The bank's operation mode is no guarantee, amortize the whole loan. The bank gave the money first, the women lent to do business, and then paid back. When Grameen Bank was founded, women's status in Bangladesh was very low. The general public thought was that women should stay at home and do housework. Therefore, Professor Yunus founded the bank not only to enrich the countryside, but also to help improve the status of women in Bangladesh.

Later, Mr. Ali introduced the operation mode and system of Grameen Bank's small loan:"Mutual aid group + loan center" system, "Sequential lending + installment repayment" system, "liaison man+ regular meeting" system and "lender + depositor + shareholder" system. Through the establishment of loan group, Grameen Bank relies on moral concepts and the interaction between interpersonal games to form the restriction and punishment for breach of contract. Members of the lending group must be five unrelated women. Several loan groups form a loan center. In fact, mutual aid group is a typical group incentive mechanism, which replaces mortgage guarantee system with intrinsic incentive mechanism.

Loans from traditional banks are mainly for male elites in cities, banks have a large number of accounting and legal professionals and are particularly sensitive to risk control, operate through a rigorous and centralized pyramid organization. The board of directors is controlled by a small number of people or institutions. But Grameen is the opposite, its prospective borrowers are mainly for the disadvantaged women who lack education in rural areas, the staff are all social workers. It doesn't need too many accountants or lawyers. The banks don't care much about risk control, take decentralized community form in organization, all the lenders are shareholders of Grameen, who jointly democratically elect the board of directors. Judging from this, Grameen Bank is closely connected with social work. It can be seen from the following aspects:

First, group mode

To understand Grameen Bank's "five member group" mode of loan through the concept of social work, it uses the group method of the three basic methods of social work, target groups or teams, and through the activities of groups or teams to provide social services for their members. Just at Grameen Bank, social workers not only provide the basic needs of making friends, but also help the whole group get rid of poverty and become rich.

Second, community construction

Grameen is not so much a bank as a community. According to Grameen's rules, every five women form a group, which is a small community. People are not only friends in business, but also close sisters in life. The reason why we put "community" building first is that the core of Grameen's success lies in "community" building, rather than what many people call "joint guaranty constraints". Community work is a kind of social work professional method that takes the whole community and community residents as the service objects, provides helping and altruistic services. Grameen is made up of several different women's lending groups in one region, provide loan service for these groups, The integration model of helping the bottom women to solve poverty problems and needs coincides with the community construction concept of social work.

Third, the concept of helping others and self-help

Grameen Bank is facing social disadvantaged groups, women at the bottom of the society, that is, rural poor women. The vast majority of these people are not popular with ordinary banks. They have not even opened transfer accounts in banks and have no credit records. But that doesn't mean the crowd is dishonest. Grameen's customers are untouchable in the traditional financial world. That is to say, the best customers of Grameen Bank are those who are unwilling to serve by commercial banks and financial institutions.

Grameen Bank's philosophy and the idea of helping people to help themselves in social work coincide, believing that everyone has the potential to solve the problems they encounter, and recognizing that these poor women without economic foundation can be seen from the perspective of advantages. Different from social work, social workers need the initiative of the case owner to seek help from the organization, but for these women, they don't know what social workers do. The Grameen Bank takes the initiative to deliver services to women and help them get rid of poverty and become rich in a real sense through practical means, improve life and create personal value.

Fourth, de labeling, respect, and acceptance

Many people think that Grameen Bank is the Bank of the poor, which is also an image of him from the outside. But Professor Yunus corrected that. He said it's better not to use the poor to describe his clients because they don't want to be labeled "poor". This coincides with the de tagging theory that has been emphasized in social work, Grameen Bank trusted these women who had no savings to repay their debts through their hands, respected and accepted them, and gave them basic trust.

During the lecture, students were very interested in the way Grameen Bank borrowed money different from other banks and gave active speeches, Mr. Ali and Ms. Li answered the students' questions patiently. In response to the students' questions, Vice President Jiang Guohe and Professor Yin Pingjun had a warm talk with Mr. Ali. Vice President Jiang shared with everyone the concept of Inclusive Finance, Grameen Bank coincides with China's current task of targeted poverty alleviation, and the role of financial social work in Grameen Bank. Finally, Grameen Bank awarded "China Construction Bank Grameen China Inclusive Finance and targeted poverty alleviation international cooperation", Vice President Jiang made a brief summary of the lecture. So far, this lecture has brought to a successful close.Text/ Huang Lin, Picture /School of Humanities

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